Since our country is located in the middle belt according to its mathematical position, each year 4 seasons are experienced clearly. In addition, since the elevation increases more at our coasts than in the inner regions, the temperature is lower in the inland areas than coastal regions .Depending on this, a wide variety of climate types are seen. These are; Mediterranean climate in the Mediterranean, continental climate in Eastern Anatolia and Central Anatolia, Black Sea climate in the Black Sea. For this reason, the climate diversity is high due to the temperatures. Accordingly, the plant species grown in our country is very diverse. For this reason, we can say that there is not any plant species that is not grown in our country. Now, let’s talk briefly about which fruits are in which region.
1) MEDITERRANEAN, MARMARA AND AEGEAN REGION
Mediterranean climate is seen at Mediterranean, Marmara and Aegean region. Snowfall and frost event is very rare in the Mediterranean climate. In addition, the most rainfall is in the winter and the least rainfall is in the summer. The rainfall observed in winter is of frontal origin. The climate is the Mediterranean climate where the frontal precipitation is most common. In these regions, more tropical fruits are grown. Let’s sample these. The fruits grown in the Marmara region intensively are especially in Bursa region. Peach, cherry, strawberry, Chestnut and grapes are the main growing fruit species in this region. Citrus fruits in the Mediterranean region are intense. Approximately 89 % of citrus production in Turkey is met by this region. The fruits such as orange, lemon, banana, citrus, grapefruit, tangerine are grown intensively in this region. The Aegean region is separated from other regions by its unique fruit production. Figs, citrus fruits and grapes, as well as apple and cherry production are very important.
2) EASTERN ANATOLIA REGION
Continental climate prevails in the eastern Anatolia region. Terrestrial climate is a type of climate that is effective in places far away from sea effects. Winters are cold and snowy in regions with this climate, and summers are usually hot and dry. Winter begins early where terrestrial climate is dominant. For this reason, Frost and heat-resistant fruits are grown in regions with this climate. Especially apricots are grown in areas that can be irrigated in Malatya, especially on the shores of Euphrates and Tohma. In addition, Mulberry production is made in Malatya, Erzincan and Elazığ. There are apple orchards along the rivers. However, the cultivation of grapes can also be done.
3) BLACK SEA REGION
The dominant climate in the Black Sea region is the Black Sea climate. The main characteristic of the Black Sea climate is that it is rainy in every season. Winters are warm as in the Mediterranean climate and there is no dry period. Natural vegetation is forests. At the Black Sea region, just like the regions dominated by the Mediterranean climate, especially citrus is grown intensively. Orange, mandarin, lemon, grapefruit, melon and citrus are the most grown fruits in the Black Sea region. In addition, Apple in Amasya, plum in Kastamonu and grapes in the Middle Black Sea are grown.
4) INNER ANATOLIA REGION
Due to the high mountains around the central Anatolia region, the region is completely closed to all sea effects; the climate is temperate, terrestrial, namely steppe climatic characteristics. Although winter does not pass as hard as at eastern Anatolia, the climate is getting harder towards the East. The summer season is quite hot and the rainfall is less in this region. In summer, the lack of rainfall and the excess temperature increases the drought. Drought necessitates the application of fallowing in grain farming. On the other hand, rainfall is downpour. Downpour rainfall causes floods and this damage to agriculture. There are quite a lot of fruits growing in the Central Anatolia region. To list some of these; apples, apricots, pears, grapes, strawberries, melon, cherry, peach and quince.